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MODERN HISTORY OF NEPAL FROM RANA RULE UP TO PRESENT

DELHI AGREEMENT AND THE END OF THE RANA RULE, MASS MOVEMENT first 2048 and second 2062/63, modern political history of nepal, THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PANCHAYAT RULE, THE STUDENTS' MOVEMENT 2036 BS,

THE MODERN HISTORY OF NEPAL COULD BE EXPLAINED ON THE BASIS OF FOLLOWING POINTS:-

THE DELHI AGREEMENT AND THE END OF THE RANA RULE
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PANCHAYAT RULE
THE STUDENTS' MOVEMENT 2036 BS
MASS MOVEMENT - I  2046 BS
MASS MOVEMENT - II  2062/63 BS

                                THE RANA RULE

FOUNDER - JANGA B. RANA 
1903 BS - 2007 BS







MAJOR EVENTS FOR THE RISE OF THE RANAS
THE KOT PARVA
THE BHANDARKHAL PARVA
THE ALAU PARVA

THE KOT PARVA
Kot Parva was the first massacre in the history of Nepal that led to the rise of the Rana regime. Through this Parva, Jung Bahadur Rana became successful in rising in power by declaring himself the Prime Minister of Nepal and the chief of Nepal Army. After the murder of the then Prime Minister Mathawar Singh Thapa, Chautariya Fatey Jung became the Prime Minister of Nepal. However, more power lay in the hands of Gagan Singh as he was Queen Rajya Laxmi’s favorite and he also controlled seven regiments in the Nepal Army. On the night of 14th September, 1846, Gagan Singh was mysteriously murdered at his house. The queen became furious over this and commanded Jung Bahadur to assemble all the administrators in the Royal court in Hanuman Dhoka palace. Tension grew on the palace seeing the high possibility of bloodshed. Jung Bahadur took the life of around forty nobles.  Many Thapas, Pandeys and Basnyats died in the massacre including the Prime  Minister Fatey Jung. Jung Bahadur used this opportunity to eliminate his rivals and gained power. He declared himself as the new Prime Minister and also the  Chief of the Nepal Army.

THE BHANDARKHAL PARVA
The event of mass killing of the courtiers that took place on 23rd Kartik, 1903 B.S. in Bhandarkhal garden is popularly known as Bhandarkhal Parva. It was thought to be the consequence of Rajya Laxmi’s conspiracy to kill Junga Bahadur  Rana when he disagreed on enthroning her son Ranendra Bikram who was not the crown prince. The queen absolutely wanted to make her son Ranendra Bikram Shah, a king instead of Surendra Bikram Shah, the legitimate crown prince. But, Junga Bahadur was sternly against the idea of Rajya Laxmi to enthrone her son in the throne of Nepal. Thus, she plotted an evil design of killing Junga Bahadur Rana with the help of her supporters including Gagan Singh Khawash’s family. Being informed about this conspiracy, Junga Bahadur with the help of his seven brothers and six platoons of soldiers managed to kill all of his opponents in the Bhandarkhal garden. Among those murdered during the massacre were the Basnets, Pandeys and others who seemed to be the opposing forces of Junga Bahadur. The queen was accused and charged with many crimes and she was exiled from the country for her good-by Junga Bahadur (she was sent to Banaras). Rajendra Bikram Shah, the king who was devoted to his younger wife also went with her to Banaras after appointing Junga Bahadur Rana as prime minister of Nepal. Thus, Junga Bahadur had another successful step for rising as the dictatorship.

THE ALAU PARVA
Rajendra Bikram Shah, who was staying in Banaras, was planning to come to power again against Junga Bahadur. The persons who ever were sent to kill Junga Bahadur were arrested with evidence and jailed or executed mercilessly. As a result of this incidence, Junga Bahadur dethroned Rajendra Bikram Shah and enthroned Surendra Bikram Shah as the king of Nepal. Rajendra Bikram was outraged with this action of Junga Bahadur and left Banaras to declare war against him. But Junga Bahadur knew it and prepared his soldiers to fight against the king. On 13th Shrawan, 1904 B.S. the soldiers of Rajendra Bikram were stationed in Alau near Birgunj but the soldiers of Junga Bahadur abruptly attacked them and killed all the opponent soldiers and the king was brought to Bhaktapur as the prisoner and declared life sentence. Therefore, all these successful Parvas provided favorable situation to Junga Bahadur and established his family rule without any opponents then after.

THE MAJOR CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION OF 2007 BS
1. After WW II, independence movement spread world wide. Many Nepalese soldiers participated the WW II became politically aware.
2. Many Nepalese students studying in India participated the Indian Independence Movement, became politically aware and fought against the Rana autocracy.
3. Mohan Samsher didn't want to change himself according to time. He adopted the supressive policy.
4. Division among the Ranas. A B C classes, C class had no role in succession. They joined the Nepali people against the A and B classes of Ranas.
Main Events of the Revolution of 2007 BS
1. Revolution led by Nepali Congress
2. The Liberation Army captured different places including Biratnagar, Palpa, Okhaldhunga, Bhairahwa, Birgunj, Dhankuta, Pokhara, Baglung, Dang, Surkhet etc.
3. On 21st Kartik 2007 BS King Tribhuvan fled to India.
4. Gyanendra became the King of Nepal.
5. India and other countries didn't recognized him.
6. People heated the streets with slogans against the Rana rule.
7. The Delhi Agreement signed (4th Falgun, 2007 BS) in Delhi among the King Tribhuvan, Nepali Congress and the Ranas and the end of the revolution.
8. King Tribhuvan declared democracy in Nepal on 7th Falgun, 2007 BS.
Some Images Related to the Rana Rule

    Janga B Rana
  Mohan Samsher
                           
    King Tribhuvan




     Rajendra Bikram










Major Political Events of Nepalese History
Jestha 20, 1993 - Establishment of Nepal Praja Parishad
1997 - Martyrdom of Four Martyrs
Ashar 1, 2004 - Revolution against the Rana launched from Kathmandu (Jayatu Sanskritam)
Bhadra 30, 2006 - Pushpalal Shrestha established Nepal Communist Party in Calcutta
Chair 27, 2006 - Nepali Congress formed by merging Nepal National Congress and Nepal Democratic Congress
Kartik 21, 2007 - King Tribhuvan took shelter at the Indian Embassy in Kathmandu
Kartik 22, 2007 - Gyanendra declared as the King of Nepal
Flagun 1, 2007 - Delhi Agreement signed
Falgun 4, 2007 - King Tribhuvan returned to Kathmandu
Falgun 7, 2007 - Democracy established and end of Ranarchy
Chair 27, 2006 - Nepali Congress formed by merging Nepal National Congress and Nepal Democratic Congress
Kartik 21, 2007 - King Tribhuvan took shelter at the Indian Embassy in Kathmandu
Kartik 22, 2007 - Gyanendra declared as the King of Nepal
Flagun 1, 2007 - Delhi Agreement signed
Falgun 4, 2007 - King Tribhuvan returned to Kathmandu
Falgun 7, 2007 - Democracy established and end of Ranarchy
Falgun 7/8, 2007 - Revolt by Dr. K I Singh
Chaitra 20, 2007- Nepal Prajatantra Radio established
Mangsir 1, 2008 - Matrika P Koirala appointed as the PM of Nepal
Shrawan 26, 2009 - Govt of M P Koirala dissolved
Jestha 16, 2010 - Mt. Everest ascended
Baishak 12, 2011 - Koshi Aggrement
Poush 26, 2011 - Satyagraha Movement of Nepali Congress started
Falgun 30, 2011 - King Tribhuvan died in Switzerland
Chaitra 1, 2011 - Mahendra assended the throne
Magh 13, 2012 - Cabinet formed under Tanka P Acharya
Ashar 31, 2014 - Cabinet disolved under Tanka P Acharya
Shrawan 11, 2014 - Cabinet formed under Dr. Kunwar Indrajeet Singh
Kartik 29, 2014 - Dr. K I Singh's cabinet disolved and direct rule of King Mahendra
Baishak 2, 2015 - Shri 5 Ko Sarkar started
Jestha 4, 2015 - Cabinet formed under Subarna Samsher
Falgun 1, 2015 - The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal released
Falgun 7, 2015 - 1st General Election held
Jestha 13, 2016 - B P Koirala became the first elected PM of Nepal
Poush 1, 2017 - King Mahendra disolved the elected govt of B P Koirala
Poush 22, 2017 - King Mahendra introduced the Panchayat System
Baishak 1, 2018 - 75 Districts and 14 Zones created
Poush 1, 2019 - The Constitution of Nepal 2019 introduced
Chaitra 20, 2019 - Cabinet formed under Dr. Tulsi Giri
Bhadra 5, 2020 - Muluki Ain introduced
Poush 1, 2021 - Land Reform Act introduced
Magh 13, 2021 - Cabinet formed under Surya B Thapa
Poush 1, 2024 - Back To Village National Campaign launched
Chaitra 25, 2025 - Cabinet formed under Kirtinidhi Bista
Baishak 6, 2027 - Nepal Students Union formed
Magh 17, 2028 - King Mahendra died at Diyalo Banglow, Bharatpur / Birendra assended the throne
Ashar 13, 2029 - 4 Development Regions created
Falgun 21, 2029 - Sukhani Assassination (Krishna Kuinkel, Ramnath Dahal, Biren Rajbanshi and Narayan Shrestha shot dead at Shukhani forest)
Mangsir, 2031 - Arm revolt by Nepali Congress in Solukhumbu and Okhaldhunga. About 85 revolutionists killed, 300 rounded up
Mangsir 15, 2032 - Dr. Tulsi Giri appointed as PM of Nepal
Bhadra 27, 2034 - Kirtinidhi Bista appointed as PM of Nepal for the second time
Shrawan 7, 2035 - Pushpalal Shrestha died in India
Magh, 2035 - Captain Yagya B Thapa and Bhimnarayan Shrestha hanged in connection to Okhaldhunga and Solukhumbu incidents
Chaitra 24, 2035 - Police Lathi Charged the students marching towards Pakistani Embassy
Jestha 10, 2036 - Referendum declared
Kartik, 2036 - Chhintang (Dhankuta) Incident took place, 15 killed
Baishak 20, 2037 - Referendum held
Jestha 1, 2037 - Result of Referendum declared
Aswin 26, 2037 - 5 Development Regions declared
Shrawan 6, 2039 - B P Koirala died
Magh, 2040 - Piskar Incident ( The Police opened fire at the people gathered to mark Maghesakrati fair, 2 killed 100s rounded up
Poush 17, 2041 - NTV established
Jestha 10, 2042 - Nepali Congress launched Satyagraha
Ashar 6, 2042 - Bombs blasted in Kathmandu, 5 killed, 19 wounded, Satyagraha stopped
Jestha 15, 2044 - Death sentence declared to Ramraja Singh, Laxman P Singh, Bishweshwar Mandal and Prem B Bishwakarma in connection to bomb incidents of 2042
Magh 2, 2046 - 7 communist parties formed left front under the leadership of Sahana Pradhan
Falgun 7, 2046 - Mass Movement I started
Chaitra 26, 2046 - Mass Movement I ended
Baishak 6, 2047 - An interim govt formed under the leadership of K P Bhattarai
Kartik 23, 2047 - King Birendra declared the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 2047
Poush 22, 2047 - Nepal Communist Party UML formed
Baishak 29, 2048 - The 2nd General election held 
Jestha 15, 2048 - G P Koirala became PM of Nepal
Jestha 3, 2050 - Madan Bhandari and Jeevraj Ashrit died in an accident at Dasdhunga, Chitwan
Ashar 26, 2051 - Parliament disolved, Mid Term election declared
Kartik 29, 2051 - Mid Term election held, CPN UML stood as the largest party
Falgun 1, 2052 - CPN Maoist started the armed revolution
Jestha 3, 2056 - General election held
Jestha 19, 2058 - Narayanhity Massacre
Jestha 22, 2058 - Gyanendra became the king of Nepal
Ashwin 18, 2059 - King Gyanendra dismissed PM Deuba
Magh 15, 2059 - Ceasefire declared between the Maoist and the GON
Magh 19, 2061 - King Gyanendra dismissed the parliament and took all the executive power in his hand
Mangsir 7, 2062 - 12 points aggrement  between Nepali Congress, CPN UML and CPN Maoist in New Delhi
Chaitra 24, 2062 - Mass Movement II started
Baishak 11, 2063 - Mass Movement  II ended
Mangsir 5, 2063 - Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed between the GON and CPN Maoist
Magh 1, 2063 - The Interim Constitution of Nepal 2063 promulgated
Magh 9, 2064 - UNMIN established
Chaitra 28, 2064 - Historical CA election I held
Jestha 15, 2065 - End of Monarchy and decleration of Republic Nepal
Jestha 29, 2065 - King Gyanendra quits the Narayanhiti Palace
Shrawan 6, 2065 - Election of President and Vice President held
Shrawan 8, 2065 - President Dr. Ram Baran Yadav took oath
Bhadra 2, 2065 - Pushpa K Dahal became the PM of Nepal
Chaitra 28, 2068 - The Maoist fighters, weapons and other goods came under Nepal army
Jestha 14, 2069 - CA I collapsed
Falgun 30, 2069 - Cabinet formed under CJ Khilraj Regmi
Jestha 30, 2070 - CA II election decided to be held
Mangshir 4, 2070 - CA II election held
Magh 28, 2070 - Sushil Koirala formed the cabinet

Major Political Events before 2046 BS

Janakpur Incident - In 2018 BS, when King Mahendra was on a visit to Janakpur, Durgananda Jha threw a bomb at the vehicle in which the king was travelling. After the police investigation regarding the incident three people Durgananda Jha, Arbinda Kumar Thakur and Dalsingh Thapa were arrested. Durgananda Jha was given death penalty on 25th Magh, 2020 BS and the other two were given life imprisonment. This incident is called the Janakpur incident.
Back to village National Campaign - In 2023 BS, the first amendment of the Constitution of Nepal 2019 was made and the King Mahendra introduced Back to village National Campaign 2024 BS. The objective of this campaign was to start the development of Nepal right from the village level.  But the program proved a complete failure.
Sukhani Assassination - Some of the youths who were influenced by communist ideology revolted against the Panchayat government in Jhapa in 2028 BS. Ram Nath Dahal, Narayan Shrestha, Krishna Kuinkel, Netra Prasad Ghimire and Biren Rajbansi were arrested for their involvement in the revolt and on the charge of the murder of Dharma Prasad Upadhyaya, the then member of National Panchayat. They were shot dead by the government at a place called Sukhani of Ilam in 2029 BS. This incident is known as Sukhani Assassination.
Timburbote Incident - The assassination of Timburbote took place in 2031 BS where Ramlaxman, Capt. Yagya Bahadur Thapa and Bhim Narayan Shrestha were killed.
Piskar Assassination - In Magh 2040 BS, a cultural programme was organized by a political party in Sindhupalchok district. The police surrounded the people who attended the programme and shot dead many innocent people. This incident is known as Piskar Assassination.
Civil Disobedience Movement - In 2042 BS, Nepali Congress launched a civil disobedience movement through out the country. The movement was withdrawn because Janabadi Morcha, a political party of Ramraja Prasad Singh blasted bombs in Kathmandu and Pokhara
Students' Revolt of 2035 BS - On 22nd Chaitra, 2035 BS, T.U. students organized a huge procession against the death sentence of the former Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. They wanted to hand over the letter of condemn to the Embassy of Pakistan in Kathmandu. The police lathi charged the students to control the situation. So, they went on a national agitation. People came out in the street revolting against the government. Realizing the anarchy in the state, King Birendra declared referendum on 10th Jesth, 2036 BS.

Mass Movement I V/S Mass Movement II

Mass Movement I
The Mass Movement I started on 7th Falgun, 2046 BS.
The Mass Movement I ended on 26th Chaitra, 2046 BS.
The Mass Movement I lasted for 49 days.
King Birendra was the rulling king of Nepal during the Mass Movement I.
Late Ganesh  Man Singh was the commander of the Mass Movement I.
The Mass Movement I ended the three decades old panchayat system in Nepal.
The Mass Movement I reestablished multiparty democracy in Nepal.

Mass Movement II
The Mass Movement II started on 24th Chaitra, 2062 BS.
The Mass Movement II ended on 11th Baishak, 2063 BS.
The Mass Movement II lasted for 19 days.
King Gyanendra was the rulling king of Nepal during the Mass Movement II.
Late Girija Prasad Koirala was the commander of the Mass Movement II.
The Mass Movement II ended the two and a half century old monarchy in Nepal.
The Mass Movement II established republic in Nepal.

THIS WAS ALL ABOUT THE MODERN HISTORY OF NEPAL FROM RANA RULE UP TO PRESENT.
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